The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal tract and at the same time a gland with mixed secretion. It responds to the entry of food into the human digestive system by producing enzymes that are excreted in the duodenum and help break down food in the intestines. On the other hand, the gland produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are released into the bloodstream and help maintain normal blood sugar levels.
What is pancreatitis and its forms?
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas in which the tissue of the gland becomes inflamed and disrupts the production process and the entry of the necessary enzymes into the intestine. The inflamed gland increases in size, its internal ducts are narrow, which prevents digestive juices from getting into the duodenum. The enzymes remaining in the gland, so to speak, begin to break down the gland itself, which leads to sad consequences.
There is an acute form of pancreatitis that is caused by a violation of diet or inflammatory diseases in the body, and with proper treatment, it does not last long. When the effect of irritant factors persists for a long time or occurs frequently, chronic pancreatitis occurs, which can develop after an acute process.
A comprehensive approach to the treatment of pancreatitis is used and a special diet plays an important part in it, without which the effectiveness of the treatment is extremely poor.
Principles of nutrition in pancreatitis
The principles of the diet for acute pancreatitis are that the first 3 days are generally recommended to observe hunger. During this time, the necessary nutrition is provided by intravenous infusion without intestinal irritation. Food that gets into the intestines always leads to an increase in the production of digestive enzymes. In acute inflammation, it is important to reduce this activity as much as possible. After a few days, the diet is gradually expanded. Initially, only ordinary water, sometimes mineral water without gas, better alkaline, weak tea is allowed.
Then the following provisions are used for chronic pancreatitis from day 3 and for acute pancreatitis after day 5:
- the frequency of nutrition at least 5 times a day for the even release of enzymes without pronounced stress and to reduce inflammation;
- the amount of fats and carbohydrates decreases as much as possible in order to increase protein products;
- the volume of food at one time is no more than 150-200 ml;
- Use warm food at 20-60 degrees, chopped or pureed.
- chew your food thoroughly and take your time;
- do not drink during meals, limit salt to 4-5 grams per day;
- exclude foods that cause flatulence;
- For the purpose of chemical protection no spices and hot spices may be used.
- Only use cooked or baked food without using fried, smoked or preserved ingredients.
Features of the diet for pancreatitis
It is important to remember that the diet must be constantly adhered to in pancreatic pancreatitis, otherwise the body will react with repeated inflammation and the consequences will be negative. With acute pancreatitis, the condition is very severe and death is not excluded.
Against the background of an increase in the proportion of protein products in the diet, the majority of them should be animals in the form of turkey, chicken or young beef. Carbohydrates should be a little more than 300 grams per day, with the restriction to ordinary sugar or jam, fats in a minimum amount, protein products make up more than half of the diet.
Allowed and prohibited foods on the diet for gastric pancreatitis
There are many permitted foods on the diet for gastric pancreatitis so that the diet can be made as diverse as possible:
- boiled or baked rabbit, veal and poultry meat (lean), boiled tongue;
- lean fish such as hake or pollock, cooked, baked or in the form of soufflé;
- Cereals are different, preferably rice or oatmeal as part of cereals, soups or casseroles;
- bread after drying in the oven, biscuit baked goods, cooked pasta;
- Lactic and lactic acid products, diluted with a low fat content in the form of an addition to main products or quark casserole, diet cheese and cottage cheese made from skimmed milk
- boiled or baked vegetables - potatoes and pumpkin, beets or carrots, fresh pumpkin;
- eggs (only egg white) in the form of omelets or casseroles, vegetable oil in moderation;
- Fruits, unsweetened when ripe or cooked in the oven, jelly or berry puree;
- weak drinks, diluted juices, rosehip fruit drinks.
The following foods are prohibited in a diet with exacerbation of pancreatitis:
- roasted or grilled meat, all offal; Lamb or goose, bacon and smoked meat, canned stew;
- Pickled seafood dishes, rich fish broths or canned food;
- cooked dishes from legumes and rich broths;
- fresh bread, pastries, fried cakes;
- natural fatty sour cream, heavy cream, large quantities of unsweetened milk;
- Garlic, mushrooms and radishes are strictly forbidden (restriction of beets and fresh vegetables);
- egg yolks and fresh natural butter;
- lots of fresh sweet fruits, cabbage and sorrel;
- Coffee, strong tea, concentrated sodas and carbonated drinks, alcohol of any strength or energy;
- ice cream, buttercream cake, chocolate, all cakes;
- hot spices, marinades, sausages and smoked meat.
Contraindications for pancreatitis
Taking into account the specifics of diet in gastric pancreatitis, there are contraindications.
They apply to patients with kidney disease or protein metabolism:
- with pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis with decompensation of the process;
- patients with urolithiasis;
- for acute or chronic kidney failure;
- for metabolic disorders of gout and the purine base;
- in the presence of multiple myeloma;
- with hormonal imbalance or thyroid problems;
- with precancerous background conditions, as excessive protein is dangerous for malignancy;
- with severe obesity or diabetes mellitus, especially with diabetic nephropathy, ie kidney damage.
Due to the increase in the amount of protein products in food, the load on the kidneys increases, and in chronic diseases, their work is disrupted.
Diet against pancreatitis: menu for the week
For a week, consider a sample diet menu with acute or chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas.
- Breakfast.Porridge on water from ground buckwheat, boiled chicken breast. Quark pudding, weak tea.
- lunch.Fruit puree, beaten in a blender, biscuit cookies.
- lunch.Rice groats puree soup, steamed veal schnitzel, apricot jelly.
- Snack.Carrot casserole with tea.
- dinner.Fish paste with oat flakes. Apple compote.
- Before going to bed.currant juice.
- Breakfast.Mashed potatoes with beef puree. Cookies, fruit tea.
- lunch.Protein omelette, carrot puree.
- lunch.Buckwheat soup with rabbit meatballs. Zucchini casserole, weak tea.
- Snack.Salad made from beet puree, fruit juice with breadcrumbs.
- dinner.Steamed turkey schnitzel with pureed rice porridge. Kiss from apples.
- Before going to bed.Rosehip fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Porridge without sugar. Carrot casserole with tea.
- lunch.Baked apples with croutons and apricot juice.
- lunch.Sea fish soup, mashed potatoes with sour cream. Pear jelly with croutons.
- Snack.Zucchini casserole with tea and biscuits.
- dinner.Steamed rabbit chops with pureed buckwheat porridge. Currant compote.
- Before going to bed.A glass of kefir.
- Breakfast.Rice pudding with boiled beef. Tea with biscuits.
- lunch.Cooked beetroot salad with yogurt and biscuits.
- lunch.Soup on a weak chicken broth with buckwheat. Vegetable meatballs, fruit jelly.
- Snack.Cottage cheese with skimmed sour cream, tea with marshmallows.
- dinner.Vegetable casserole with Pollock. Dried fruit compote.
- Before going to bed.Apple fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Chopped oatmeal flour with steamed beef schnitzel. Fruit pudding tea.
- lunch.Steamed fish meatballs, apple jelly.
- lunch.Rabbit soup with boiled meat. Pumpkin casserole with sour cream, tea without sugar.
- Snack.Protein omelette with apple juice.
- dinner.Roll with turkey and vegetable stew. Tea with biscuits.
- Before going to bed.Low-fat fermented baking milk.
- Breakfast.Cooked pasta with chicken pie. Unsweetened tea.
- lunch.Pumpkin puree with unsweetened yogurt.
- lunch.Pumpkin and veal puree soup. Zucchini stew and cranberry jelly.
- Snack.applesauce, a cup of kefir.
- dinner.Steamed fish cakes with oat flakes. Tea with biscuits.
- Before going to bed.Apricot compote.
- Breakfast.Casserole with beef and vegetables. Ryazhenka with cookies.
- lunch.Quark pudding and fruit puree.
- lunch.Pumpkin and mashed potato soup. Chicken meatballs with oatmeal. Fresh fruit compote.
- Snack.Carrot pudding with unsweetened tea.
- dinner.Casserole with hake and zucchini. Apple jelly.
- Before going to bed.Freshly fermented baking milk.
When creating menus and preparing food, it must be noted that the food must be fresh and that the preparation methods must cook or bake. It is undesirable to combine different proteins at the same time, and small servings are recommended to reduce stress on the pancreas.
Diet against pancreatitis: reviews from nutritionists
Reviews of nutritionists about nutrition for pancreatitis are as follows. Its main details are aimed at lessening the nutrient load on the gland and reducing the production of digestive juice that aids inflammation. In addition to these effects, such a diet prevents liver and biliary tract diseases, as it normalizes the frequency of bile secretion into the intestines. However, with a background of limitations, one should remember to include a sufficient amount of vitamins in the diet to avoid vitamin deficiency.
With a lack of its own enzymes in the patient's body, the absorption of nutrients from food decreases. To correct the absorption of nutrients, drugs are used that contain the necessary enzymes in granular or encapsulated form. Special medicinal capsules stimulate the action of enzymes in a specific location in the digestive system for maximum effect.
In the case of acute pancreatitis, it is important to chop food as much as possible. However, in chronic pancreatitis, food should not be finely chopped or wiped from prepackaged foods in order to maintain the physiological work of the digestive tract, although heat treatment should be done without frying or grilling. The more balanced the diet, the less likely it is to have undesirable results. In acute pancreatitis, the diet should be adhered to for at least 2-3 months; in chronic diseases, it is desirable for life.